Oil production is booming in West Texas, but can we protect what is best about the Big Bend region? BBCA Executive Director J.D. Newsom chats with reporter David Schechter and Verify TV to discuss the impacts of the oil production in West Texas.
The Crowley Theater was filled to capacity last Saturday evening for the Eminent Domain Town Hall hosted by the Big Bend Conservation Alliance (BBCA) and Trans Pecos Documentary team. The evening’s program opened with an excerpt of the upcoming Trans Pecos documentary that featured Joel Nelson, one of the 41 landowners whose land was condemned to construct the Trans Pecos pipeline.
The panel, moderated by Jim Bradbury, general counsel for Texans for Property Rights, then entered into a discussion of how the current situation disadvantages landowners. David Yeates, CEO of the Texas Wildlife Association, spoke about the imbalance of power between the urban centers, where the population (and legislative power) is concentrated, and the rural areas, where “about 80 percent of our working lands, our open space” are managed. It is those open lands that provide us with aquifer recharge, clean air, and wildlife habitat, but the stewards of those lands are an “outgunned minority” in the Legislature, according to Yeates. “We all collectively are benefiting off their backs and their hard work. So we have to stand up for them. And that’s why all this matters.” Rex White, Jr., former counsel for the Texas Railroad Commission, stated that even though the Legislature may not be paying attention to the protection of private property rights, “the Supreme Court of Texas has repeatedly, recently, and unanimously recognized that strong judicial protections for individual property rights is essential to freedom itself…Individual property rights are a foundational liberty, not a contingent privilege. They are…fundamental, natural, inherent, inalienable.”
The panel also discussed the secretive way that pipeline deals are made. According to Yeates, “There’s too much secrecy, too much opaqueness in the issue right now. I think stripping some of that away and creating some more transparency will solve quite a bit of that.” But legislators are unlikely to truly understand the issue unless they hear firsthand from those affected. Marissa Patton, representing the Texas Farm Bureau, said that “It’s definitely going to take a lot of involvement, but particularly from those who have been impacted and from those who have a story to tell.”
The solution to eminent domain abuse seems to be greater transparency, a sentiment echoed by Renea Hicks, an attorney who has represented landowners in state and federal court. He spoke about the need for public hearings, similar to those held for power lines and road projects, to establish whether a pipeline is even eligible for eminent domain. “Then, and only then, should the pipeline companies be allowed to approach private landowners about condemning their land…and not one moment before.”
In response, to a question during the question and answer session concerning whether there is any gas flowing in the Trans Pecos pipeline at this time, Coyne Gibson, former oil and gas systems engineer and volunteer with the Big Bend Conservation Alliance, stated “There is no gas flow trans-border in the Trans Pecos pipeline…the system has yet to flow a single cubic foot of natural gas in export to Mexico.”
The Eminent Domain Town Hall, which was broadcast on a live feed via Facebook with over 1300 viewers, marked a further milestone in the formation of a broad coalition focused on common-sense reform of the laws related to the taking of private land by corporate interests. This coalition is gathering steam ahead of the 2019 session of the Texas Legislature. To learn more, visit the Big Bend Conservation Alliance Facebook page or www.bigbendconservationalliance.org.
Big Bend Conservation Alliance is a non-profit, volunteer-driven organization that works to conserve the living heritage and unique natural and cultural resources of the greater Big Bend region of Texas.
Trans Pecos | The Story of Stolen Land and the Loss of America’s Last Frontier is a documentary and timely intervention, weaving together the issues of land and water rights, while painting an honest portrait of what is to come if private interests are allowed to continue to supersede the public good. It is a cautionary tale meant to inspire people from every walk of life to take action and work toward change that can happen if informed citizens and those in power hold pipeline companies accountable. Please visit www.transpecosdoc.com.
Contact: Nicol Ragland | Director | Trans Pecos Documentary
email@example.com | 323.791.2536
BBCA receives $30,000 grant from Rockefeller Family Fund
The Big Bend Conservation Alliance (BBCA) is pleased to announce the receipt of a Changing Horizons grant from the Rockefeller Family Fund.
The $30,000 grant will enhance BBCA’s current efforts to obtain regional hydrology data as part of its Water Program and to fund an upcoming Eminent Domain Panel discussion and screening to be produced by the ‘Trans Pecos’ Documentary team. The event will bring together legal experts and landowners to discuss challenges and approaches related to the taking of private land by corporate interests.
The Big Bend Conservation Alliance (BBCA) is a non-profit, volunteer-driven organization that works to conserve the living heritage and unique natural and cultural resources of the greater Big Bend region of Texas.
The Changing Horizons grant supports organizations in line with the Rockefeller Family Fund’s initiatives to promote “public education on the risks of global warming and implementation of sound [environmental] solutions.”
Contact: Trey Gerfers | Big Bend Conservation Alliance
firstname.lastname@example.org | 432.295.0891
BBCA Board President Trey Gerfers has been appointed to the Board of Directors of the Presidio County Underground Water Conservation District.
The Railroad Commission of Texas (RCT) responded today to the Big Bend Conservation Alliance’s Texas Public Information Act, Open Records request (TPIA/OR), the third such request related to evidence of Trans-Pecos Pipeline’s applications, and any associated permits for discharge of hydrostatic testing water.
In 2015, the BBCA’s research team estimated that as much as 54,000,000 gallons of water would be required for hydrostatic testing purposes. Trans-Pecos Pipeline made no specific disclosures about the testing methodology or process to be used, but did indicate that water would be re-used when, and where possible.
Following is the summary of the permit applications – no discharge permits have been issued by RCT as of January 23, 2017, although hydrostatic testing began in Brewster County, on or about January 10:
Total discharge: 44,853,646 gallons
25 Permit Applications
3 discharge locations in Pecos County, five in Brewster County, 17 in Presidio County
8,889,418 gallons discharged in Pecos County
12,045,319 gallons discharged in Brewster County
23,918,909 gallons discharged in Presidio County
The applications, and associated permits, when issued, require the discharge to occur in a specific location on the pipeline route, in this case 25 locations spanning Pecos, Brewster, and Presidio counties. The permit applications disclose that the hydrostatic testing water will not be chemically treated prior to testing, and will be discharged through hay-bale filters at each location.
The BBCA will follow this activity at a later date with a detailed release to the media.
The State of Texas, via the regulating authority, the Railroad Commission of Texas (RCT), makes it difficult, deliberately, to determine how much natural gas is being flared.
Technically, flaring of natural gas is allowed on a well intermittently, during drilling, and for only 10-days after a well is completed, for flow testing. Unfortunately, a variety of loopholes and exceptions in the laws allow flaring to occur indefinitely.
The following graph, produced by RCT, to deliberately obfuscate and diminish the flaring activity shows that in recent years, about 1% of all of the produced gas (which includes casing-head gas, and well gas). On a monthly based, in recent years, the wells state-wide produced about 650-billion (650,000,000,000) cubic feet of natural gas. Flaring 1% of that gas amounts to 6.5-billion (6,500,000,000) feet – flared, burned off, which creates carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and various volatile organic compounds, all of which pollute the air, contaminate the ground, and surface water, and increase the atmospheric CO2 load.
Converted to electrical power, that 6.5-billion cubic feet of natural gas, wasted through flaring, would generate 1905 gigawatt hours (Gwh) of electricity monthly. For comparative purposes, factoring in peak and trough demand, 1Gwh is enough energy to supply approximately 300,000 average U.S. homes. Just in Texas, every month, more than 19-times this amount of energy is wasted through flaring.
You can see for yourself what the RCT’s flaring policies are here:
As of mid-September, 2016, many Big Bend area residents are aware of the on-the-ground construction activities associated with the Trans-Pecos Pipeline, a project of Energy Transfer Partners, Mas-Tech, Inc., and Carso Energy.
Construction is now active from the northern origin of the pipeline system near Coyanosa, Texas, to the southern United States terminus of the project, and the so-called “jurisdictional facilities”, along the International border, the Rio Grande, 12milesnorth-northwest of Presidio, Texas.
Right-of-way clearing has occurred on approximately one-half of the total 143-mile route, pipe segments have been strung along the construction easement, welding is in progress on some spreads, horizontal directional drilling (HDD) bore operations are in progress at some road, and highway crossings. Residents of Brewster and Presidio counties, especially in the Alpine, Marfa, and Presidio environs will likely see most clearly the direct impact of these activities.
On the legal front, after FERC’s grant of the permit package, and completion of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Nation-Wide Permit 12 blanket authorization, construction activity began in earnest. Some 39 land owners in Brewster, Pecos, and Presidio counties underwent administrative phase eminent domain condemnation hearings, in which Special Commissioners awarded damages, in some cases in excess of 30X the offers made to the landowners by Trans-Pecos Pipeline LLC. The company is appealing in the second, judicial phase of these proceedings these awards, which will tie landowners up for as long as two years.
In one case, in Presidio County, a ranch owner filed for emergency relief in Federal court, challenging the company’s right to condemn –that injunctive relief was denied in the courts, and the rancher’s counsel have appealed in Federal appellate courts in the Fifth Circuit.
In all likelihood, despite actions in the courts and pending litigation, construction activity will continue unabated and the pipeline will be operational during the first quarter of 2017.
Citizens of the region, supported by concerned individuals and organizations across Texas and the nation, exercised all avenues of due-process afforded them under the law. They raised awareness in the national and international media. These dedicated and concerned individuals spoke out, acted, and provided an unprecedented response in opposing the Trans-Pecos Pipeline. Concerns regarding environmental, cultural, socioeconomic impacts, public safety, and a host of other issues were researched, and these concerns were placed on the record at the state, and federal level. Despite this, powerful, monied interests, an un-level legal, and regulatory playing field, the deaf ears of regulatory agencies, and our government representatives, save for a very few, we were ignored.
The Big Bend Conservation Alliance (BBCA), partner organizations including Defend Big Bend, local, and state chapters of the Sierra Club, and citizens near, far, and wide participated in the opposition. Along the way, based on experience, research, and nationwide outreach, we learned of additional, and in some cases larger, more significant threats to the region:
– follow-on pipeline projects, including expansion of the Trans-Pecos Pipeline system, related to cross-border energy exports, attempting to exploit the market
– expansion of transportation and utility corridor infrastructure, including rail, highway, and electrical transmission grid, in the continued regional threat represented by the La Entrada al Pacifico project
– expansion of low-level, radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities, in West Texas, and addition of high-level radioactive waste storage facilities in the region
– the threat of increased industrialization, related to oil and gas extraction activity in the southern Delaware basin, potentially impacting the whole of the Big Bend with thousands of oil & gas wells, unconstrained use of, and potential contamination of scarce water resources, oilfield traffic, crime, environmental impact, and cultural/socioeconomic impact
– threats of water mining on scarce resources, from El Paso to the west, and the Midland-Odessa region to the north, exports of water outside the region for oil and gas use, etc.
– fracking wells drilled and mineral rights controlled at Balmorhea putting the water security of a town and the habitat for endangered species at risk
The numerous threats–complex, impactful, seemingly endless–loom to change the Big Bend region, transforming it permanently. Those who threaten the region remain largely unchecked, unconstrained in their revenue and profit-driven activities. Some of these threats refuse to die, for example La Entrada al Pacifico, defeated at least once, but rearing its ugly head once again, under the cover of political darkness at the state level.
Profiteers see the region as a “wasteland,” they see its people as sparse, poor, powerless, uneducated, and thus ripe to exploit.
The BBCA, other local and regional organizations, and the individuals of the Big Bend–as well as those who may reside elsewhere, but love this place–must face the reality now before us, the reality of these broader threats. These looming issues have now transcended a single pipeline, our opposing one project, focusing on just one consortium of profiteers –we now face the challenge of regional threats on many fronts, led by multiple billionaires, and multi-billion dollar corporations.
If these projects are allowed to continue unopposed, they will transform the Big Bend into a true wasteland, undifferentiated from the all-too-common industrialized areas we have seen elsewhere–devoid of the wild, natural beauty of what we know now as the last true frontier.
The BBCA intends to stay in the game for the long haul, working to preserve the last frontier. In preparing for this next chapter, we have identified four program areas that will be of utmost importance in strengthening the region against future threats. They are:
2) Dark Skies
3) Land Use and Conservation
4) Cultural Resources
We have already begun education, outreach and preservation in each of these categories by:
- raising awareness of eminent domain abuse,
- providing workshops on light pollution and water,
- partnering with area water conservation districts and engaging with local activists in the town of Balmorhea to education the public about the risks associated with fracking,
- partnering with the Presidio County Historical Commission and the Center for Big Bend Studies (CBBS) at Sul Ross State University, among others, to revive the Ruidosa Church restoration project and
- assisting with on-site monitoring and raising awareness around/cataloging archaeological sites threatened by the Trans-Pecos Pipeline,
- and there is more to come.
Each of us can make a difference. Our individual contribution of time, our connections to other people, our ability to support organizations who stand to help the region, our ability to vote on the basis of important issues, to effect regulatory, legislative, and political reform are key –these are the tools we have at our disposal. Our time, intellect, emotion, and financial support are the things we have at hand to defend ourselves, our homes, and the region we love: the Big Bend.
This article examines the potential impacts of oil and gas activity in the Delaware Basin, a sub-region of the greater Permian Basin region in far west Texas.
Recent announcements from Apache Corporation, notably, the so-called “Alpine High” find in the southern Delaware Basin demonstrate the continued southerly movement of oil and gas exploration, and production activity, extending toward the virtually pristine, and largely intact Big Bend region.
The negative potential of this development activity may outweigh any positive economic gain, particularly for the impacted region itself. The Big Bend is the last frontier, thus far spared from major urban, commercial, or industrial development, particularly related to energy industry infrastructure.
The Big Bend region, in far southwest Texas is comprised of of Jeff Davis, Brewster, and Presidio counties. The northern counties bordering the region include Reeves, and Pecos counties, and further to the north, the region known as the greater Permian Basin, one of Texas’ most productive oil and gas producing regions.
This graphic provides insight into the location of the Delaware Basin, overlapping Reeves, Pecos, and portions of Jeff Davis, Brewster, and Presidio counties:
The following graphic shows acreage leased by just three of eight oil & gas producers in the basin, predominantly covering Reeves, and portions of Pecos, Jeff Davis, and Brewster counties – some 700,000 acres.
The recent “find,” known as the “Alpine High,” announced by Apache Corp is included here, along the Reeves-Jeff Davis northeastern county line.
The regional geology is complex, and consists of volcanic, and sedimentary rock layers, including basins, ancient reef structures, uplifts, faults, and mountainous terrain. The hydrocarbon resources in the region are so-called “tight” plays; crude oil, natural gas, condensates (natural gas liquids), trapped in semi-porous sedimentary rock layers within the strata – some sand, limestone (carbonates), and shale. These layers were formed over differing geological time scales, and they have intervening layers of non-porous (impermeable) rock, and non-bearing strata that trap the hydrocarbons in the carbonate, sand, and shale layers. In some cases these layers are one-hundred to two-hundred feet thick, in other cases, they are many thousands of feet thick. These layers vary in porosity, or “permeability,” with sand and carbonate layers having higher permeability than shale. Since shale is semi-porous, or “low porosity” rock, the ability of hydrocarbon resources to migrate, or flow through the rock is poor. To recover crude oil, natural gas, and condensates from these “tight shale” plays, advanced recovery techniques are used – known collectively as hydraulic fracturing and well stimulation, typically using a vertical well bore to reach the shale layers, with the well bore “steered” by directional drilling techniques to produce a horizontal bore section, or “lateral.” The lateral part of the bore is then “fractured,” or “fraced” to produce cracks, or fractures in the shale layer, to allow the hydrocarbons to flow from the fractured shale, into the well bore, where is can be extracted. This is the only way to economically recover sufficient hydrocarbons from these “tight” plays.
Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracing” is controversial for a number of reasons, including intensity of water usage, use of toxic chemicals, its impact on the underground geology, both direct, and indirect, the potential for groundwater contamination, and numerous other reasons. Fracturing of the sub-surface shale layers requires a mixture of water, chemicals, including surfactants, lubricants, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents, anti-corrosives, acids, and mechanical components, known as “proppants” (sand, or ceramic materials) used to keep the fractures open, allowing hydrocarbon flow. These components are mixed together, and injected down the well bore under very high hydraulic pressure, which in turn flows through perforations in the horizontal (“lateral”) sections of the well bore to fracture the shale.
The usual development of this kind of play involves multi-well pads, using bores with multiple, stacked laterals. A typical four-well pad completion will use 1,000,000 bbl. of water (42,000,000 gallons) over about a two week period.
This graphic shows the arrangement of a typical multi-well, stacked lateral production field:
The flow-back operation, following fracturing, will generate contaminated water, some of which is recovered, and potentially recycled. The remainder has to be either treated for disposal, or disposed of through deep-well injection (this is what is causing earthquake activity in North Texas and Oklahoma).
Once the well stimulation (fracking) activity is completed, and the well has been brought in, it is ready to enter its production phase, to begin delivering hydrocarbons. Those hydrocarbon products must be delivered upstream, to processing facilities – gas processing plants, and refineries. The general notion of moving hydrocarbons from the field producing to processing is known as take-away.
Someone has to put in take-away capacity for tens of thousands of barrels of crude oil, and NGL’s – pipelines, as well as the gathering lines from the well heads.
“Take-away” is the means by which hydrocarbon products, including crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) are transported away from the well and related production sites. Take-way is also necessary for transport of waste by-products, including contaminated water.
Supply, and take-away capacity during early development of a field is usually by truck – supply components in the process, including fresh water, diesel fuel (for rig and generator power), fracing chemicals, proppants, etc. are made by tanker. Product and waste by-product take-away is also made by tanker. Small tank batteries are constructed near well pads, and other areas like gas-oil separator pads, gas processing plants, etc., to temporarily accumulate the produced hydrocarbons, and waste byproducts, which are in turn pumped into tankers for transport to upstream facilities.
Over time, to address inefficiency, and improve the economics of producing the field, pipelines, and in some cases rail facilities are installed. Gathering lines move the raw hydrocarbon stream from the well-head to processing facilities. These include gas, and liquid hydrocarbon streams. Additional pipelines from the gas processing plant(s), and from crude oil and NGL storage facilities (tank batteries) move product from the field to refinery operations, in this case to the northeast in the Midland-Odessa area, and to the west-northwest to El Paso. Pipeline construction requires acquiring right-of-way, sometimes through use of eminent domain condemnation, right-of-way clearing, trenching, and other aspects of pipeline construction, and ultimately pipeline operation, which has associated public safety and environmental impact. These pipelines can range in size from 2” (a small connector in the gathering network) to larger 30-inch diameter systems (bulk crude or NGL).
Other components of the take-away system may include pipelines for waste water gathering and transport, and in the supply side, they may also include fresh water, and lean natural gas (used for rig power as an alternative to diesel fuel). Similar impacts to take-away pipelines also apply in this case.
Since this is primarily a rich, wet gas play, the production will include natural gas, condensates (NGL), some oil. The balance of hydrocarbons over this range of production will vary based on the underlying geology and reservoir contents. In the Bone Spring, Wolfcamp, and “Wolfbone” shales, the percentages range from a balanced stream of 1/3 natural gas, 1/3 NGL’s, and 1/3 crude to as much as ½, or 50% natural gas, combined with 40% NGL/condensate, and 10% crude.
Some water is also inevitably produced – depending on a variety of factors, tens to hundreds of thousands of barrels in an operating month – a good average for these formations is about 100,000bbl/month, or about 4,200,000 gallons of produced water, that comes back up with the hydrocarbon stream. That contaminated water has to be hauled out, and either treated for disposal, reused in maintaining the field (which is expensive), or disposed of through deep-well injection.
There will be flaring activity during drilling and completion, possibly less once the field is in production, as technically flaring gas wells is illegal under RCT and TCEQ/EPA rules. Unfortunately, RCT is known for issuing exemptions, and authorizing extensions for allowable flaring, even on production natural gas wells. Flaring is a component of all hydrocarbon energy development, from exploration, and production at the well head, through processing for use and delivery of hydrocarbon-based products:
That is not to say there will be no flaring once the field is in production. Emergency shut-in of a well, compressor station, etc. typically results in flaring, as do maintenance activities. Flaring produces toxic emissions, as well as other products of combustion including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. All of these emissions contaminate air, and water, and increase atmospheric CO2 levels. There is generally continuous flare operation at gas processing plants, and in some compressor station operations – this is an emergency readiness requirement, necessary to ignite the flare stack on a blow-down line in an emergency venting operation, as well as to burn off hazardous materials from vent lines on processing equipment and intermediate storage vessels. This activity is technically regulated by TCEQ, and emissions are supposed to be monitored and controlled. This kind of continuous flaring activity is a source of unwanted artificial light.
Since this is classified as a sour gas play (rich, wet gas often has a high H2S content), there will have to be one, or more gas plants capable of removing the sulfur from the stream, and drying the gas – gas plants of this type produce molecular sulfur, which is usually transported out in molten form by tanker, either truck or rail. Depending on the market conditions, the sulfur can be sold for industrial purposes (used in fertilizer, rubber, etc.) When the market is down, the producer either has to store the sulfur, or pay to have it hauled out – neither is a good thing. In a down market, the sulfur is typically transformed from molten to solid form, and stored in open bins, which allow rain to contact the solid sulfur, some of which is transformed into sulfuric, acidic storm-water run-off. In dry, windy conditions, some is eroded from the bin and turned into sulfur-laden dust. Depending on the nature of the reservoir, and H2S content of the gas stream, the processing plant(s) may need to remove between 600 and 1000 long tons of sulfur daily.
In addition, sour gas, containing H2S (hydrogen sulfide), is a deadly toxin. The entrained H2S kills humans, and animals in the parts-per-billion level. Leaks in the production system, from the well-head, gathering network, compressor stations, and gas processing plants can be catastrophic, and significant threats to nearby populations.
Today’s 3D seismology, and petro-geology techniques are pretty good, but they are not perfect.
What is happening underground, given the idiosyncratic nature of the geology and formations, can be unpredictable. A bore excursion, a frack-out, a hidden fault that connects to other structures, like the water table, fluid migration, and other factors can, and does cause groundwater contamination. Problems with well bore casings, problems with well bore linings (cement) all result in the escape of hydrocarbons and other chemical contaminants into surrounding strata, with the potential for groundwater contamination.
One of the Apache Corporation’s existing 19 wells is adjacent to Balmorhea Lake… imagine the eventual web of horizontal bores permeating southern Reeves County, and the potential risks.
The greater concern is the level of industrialization related to developing an oil & gas play of this magnitude. While all eight producers holding lease interests in the region are likely over-stating the reserves, in some cases probably substantially, to try and prop up their shaky business by inflating stock prices, the impact on the region will be tremendous, even if only a fraction of this is developed and brought into production.
Notice the significant lease block in southeastern Brewster County, and its proximity to Big Bend National Park.
The southern Delaware Basin region borders the Jeff Davis, Presidio, and Brewster county region, “home of the Big Bend,” which includes Davis Mountains State Park, Big Bend Ranch State Park, the Chinati Mountains Preserve, Big Bend National Park itself, and the University of Texas McDonald Observatory, one of North America’s premier research astronomy facilities. These parks, and the research facility are part of an area tourism draw that brings in more than 100,000 visitors to the region annually – dark-sky tourism is a critical component of the regional economy. Artificial sky-brightness, and light sources, including flaring activity, industrial lighting, and commercial lighting all threaten to dramatically increase artificial sky-glow, and negatively impact this region, which has one of the darkest skies in North America. As potential development of the southern Delaware Basin pushes further south, these light sources move closer to the parks and observatory – light transmission and brightness is based on what is known as the “inverse square law” – in other words, a light source that moves twice is close to the viewer’s eye is four times brighter. A source that moves three times closer is nine times brighter, and so on. Currently, the artificial sky-glow, and associated light dome from the greater Permian Basin region is visible on the horizon from approximately 300-miles to the north-northeast. The Delaware Basin activity will push these sources of light to within 25-miles of these parks and research facility. While it is true that the surrounding seven counties are afforded legislative protection for night sky, and outdoor lighting, enforcement is problematic, and certain activities, like flaring are exempt from the associated legislation and ordinances.
This is the sky-glow, and associated light dome generated by oil and gas activity in the Permian Basin:
In addition to increased sky-glow, threatening the region’s dark skies, reduced air quality, due to combustion by-products from rig and site power, fugitive emissions, and flaring, water demands, and potential contamination of groundwater resources, increased dust from traffic on unpaved lease roads, wear & tear on county and state roads from oilfield traffic, increases in vehicle accidents, including fatalities, increased crime, and corresponding increased demands on area public safety, EMS and fire resources. We’ll examine some of these impacts in-depth next.
Water Use & Water Quality
As mentioned, developing the resources in an oil & gas basin is a water-intensive activity. The Delaware Basin exists within a larger bioregion known as the Chihuahaun Desert, an arid region that receives less than 19-inches of rainfall on an average annual basis.
With the exception of Balmorhea Lake, an open water resource fed by the San Solomon Springs, in Reeves County, there is no open water in the region. The majority of the water in the region is sourced from underground, minor aquifers, which exist within fractured igneous rock, fed by rainfall in the recharge zones in the mountains surrounding the Delaware Basin. Water is a scarce, and precious resource within the region, and the majority of the water used for human survival, wild-life, and agricultural purposes is derived from these minor aquifers.
The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), and the associated area underground water districts plan for, and quantify water use. Oil & Gas activity, oddly, does not exist as a category for water use, and instead falls under a broader category as a mining activity. In the region, TWDB and county underground water conservation districts show near zero use of area water resources in support of oil & gas activity or mining. The requirements for supporting development of the southern Delaware basin are not accounted for in any of the current, or forward-looking plans – known as Desired Future Conditions (DFC’s). Given than development of a single 4-bore well pad consumes on average 42,000,000 gallons of water (about 129 acre-feet), and a single producer, in this example, Apache Corporation’s “Alpine High” field may contain 2000 – 4000 wells, using the conservative averages, from 64,500 acre-feet, to as much as 129,000 acre-feet of water (billions of gallons) would be required to complete these wells. This is a fraction of the total water required for the full development of the entire southern Delaware Basin.
In turn, the water used during fracturing is “flowed back,” after the fracturing process is complete. That water is chemically contaminated with the materials used during well stimulation, including acids, surfactants, anti-bacterial and anti-fungals, corrosion inhibitors, and many other harmful chemicals. The flow-back water must be collected, and either treated to remove the chemical contaminants, for surface disposal or municipal disposal, or it must be injected into deep-well disposal, in which case that water is essentially lost from the hydrologic cycle forever.
In some production operations, there are operators who recycle this water, and re-use it during subsequent fracturing operations. While this is possible, and a rising trend, it is not ubiquitous in the industry. This also requires local storage of the water, typically in so-called “frac ponds,” which are excavated pits, with synthetic liners to prevent loss of the contaminated water into the groundwater table. Leaks in the liners are common, and leakage of contaminated water is common.
Groundwater contamination also occurs due to faulty well casings, faulty well cementing operations, spills, and related well-head operations. Despite best efforts, there are thousands of documented cases of groundwater contamination related to oil and gas operations, including hydraulic fracturing activities.
Statistically, over eight or more producers, and thousands of wells in the Delaware Basin, groundwater contamination from these activities is not just a remote possibility, it is a certainty.
A specific concern lies in operations within Reeves County – Balmorhea State Park, Balmorhea Lake, San Solomon Springs, and interconnectivity to an underground cave and spring system, Phantom Springs, are at risk of loss from oil and gas development in the southern Delaware Basin.
These resources are unique, in the isolated arid Chihuahuan Desert – literal oases in this landscape, serving wildlife, including migratory birds, recreational needs for Texans, and they provide drinking and agricultural water sources for the community of Balmorhea and surrounding area.
The risk of contamination is an existential threat, chemicals, or contaminated industrial water from the fracing process that migrates into the springs, catastrophic damage to the geology that damages or impairs spring flow, etc., are all valid concerns.
One company, Apache Corporation, owns the leases on mineral rights underneath Balmorhea Lake, and Balmorhea Lake State Park – although they claim that they will restrict their drilling operations to exclude the park, lake, and town of Balmorhea, that restriction fails to completely protect these resources.
One Apache leased rig operates within 1500-feet of Balmorhea Lake:
Oil and gas exploration, extraction, and production activities are known to cause a variety of air quality emissions, ranging from fugitive emissions (leaks), byproducts of combustion, dust and aerosol contaminants, and toxic chemicals.
These emissions originate from diverse sources, including valve and casing leaks, from flaring activities, venting from tank batteries, vessels in processing systems, and the majority of activities associated with developing the hydrocarbon resources in the field.
They include dust, generated by traffic on unpaved lease roads, exhaust emissions from rig power, vehicles, electrical generation systems, and other traffic associated with the development and production of the field.
Carcinogens, including aerosolized benzene, toluene, and various other known cancer-producing agents are emitted from compressor stations, gas processing plants, and associated systems.
Many of these emissions, including dust and aerosols can have additive negative impact when combined with artificial light sources, exacerbating sky-glow, and increasing the apparent, and effective size of light-domes – the aerosolized material provides additional means to scatter, and distribute wasted light from artificial sources, creating additional negative impact on the region.
For individuals suffering from respiratory disorders, including COPD, asthma/ARDS, or related chronic health problems, as well as the elderly, and infants, these emissions create additional health risk and hazards.
While TCEQ, and in some cases, RCT, have monitoring and enforcement responsibility, these agencies are notoriously lax in both aspects, and air quality issues related to emissions from oil & gas activities go largely unchecked, until significant health issues in surrounding, impacted communities become overwhelming.
Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure
Truck traffic, including transportation of heavy equipment, water, hydrocarbons, and oilfield logistics will take a heavy toll on the few county and state roads in the region. Wear and tear, and the kind of damage created by oilfield traffic can easily be seen first hand, by traveling U.S. 285 through Reeves and Culberson counties. Damage to roadways, including main-lane, and shoulders, from heavy truck traffic are costly to repair, and damage private vehicles, indirectly costing area residents significant sums for tire, wheel, and other damage.
Increased traffic, resulting including car-truck, truck-truck, and single vehicle accidents are common.
In turn, deaths related to motor vehicle accidents increase.
Area TX-DOT resources are not currently equipped to deal with the additional maintenance required to sustain safe Texas highways, potentially impacted by oilfield development activity in the region. To an even greater extent, county road and highway departments are even more greatly impacted by this activity.
It is unlikely, and there is no evidence, that tax or other revenue generated to the impacted counties is sufficient to keep up with, and repair use-based damage to area roadways. Instead, citizens of the region suffer from additional costs, vehicle damage, and impaired travel on area roadways at the expense of the oil and gas development activity.
Oil & gas development activity has associated numerous public safety concerns. Ruptures, explosions, and fires associated with pipelines, processing facilities, storage facilities are frequent problems in producing fields. Lighting strike induced fires on tank batteries are common.
Leaks at well sites, which may produce H2S are common problems. Occasional wild-well situations occur.
The surrounding landscape is in part short-grass prairie, including the Alpine grasslands, along with scrub, and tinder-dry fuels.
The entire fire-related first responders in the region consist of several small, volunteer fire departments, with inter-department/inter-agency mutual aid agreements.
There is little to no surface water. The terrain is rugged, and difficult in which to operate. Area prevailing winds can create dangerous, extreme fire behaviors. In 2011, the Rock House Fire, ignited by a single spark, burned over 314,000 acres in the region, and ran out of control for nearly thirty days.
Imagine the risk created by concentrated oilfield development activity, and operation in the southern Delaware Basin, unlimited by the nature of the region, and local fire-fighting capability.
Similarly, there is a single 24-bed regional hospital serving Jeff Davis, Brewster, and Presidio counties.
There is a single 25-bed regional hospital in Reeves County (Pecos) to the north of the area. EMS first responders are also volunteers, and there are fewer than a half-dozen licensed paramedic/EMT staff in the region.
Increased demand on these resources from potential oilfield related impacts is impossible to predict, but the resources are thinly stretched now. Fire, injury-accidents, etc. that impact EMS and hospital resources will be heavily hit by this activity.
Quality of Life
Statistically, as population density increases, so does the crime rate. With certain kinds of industrial development, and related urbanization/commercialization, the crime rates tend to increase at a higher than average rate, and certain crimes, for example drug trafficking, human trafficking and prostitution, assaults, driving while intoxicated, etc. increase at higher rates.
Historically, the oil field activity in Texas, and recently, in examples in the Bakken field in North Dakota, along with numerous studies on crime rate, and quality of life support this claim, and concern.
The seven-county area impacted by Delaware Basin development encompasses a vast land area, and relatively small, very low density population – about 25,000 people, spread over about 28,000 square miles – less than one person per square mile.
The small communities that exist in the region are rural, mostly agrarian, with thin law enforcement resources, covering a huge land area.
The region is ill-equipped to cope with potential increases in criminal activity. In addition, many of the impacted counties are border communities, and are already dealing with, and over-taxed by the drug and related trade between the U.S. – Mexico border.
The oil and gas industry is heavily cyclical, and the “boom – bust” economic activity associated with it generates a highly transient, mostly temporary workforce. During the peak of a producing field’s development, there may be several thousand temporary, transient workers supporting that activity. While the majority of them are simply hard-working people doing a job, there inevitably are some with less positive intentions.
As an example, recent pipeline construction in the Culberson, Brewster, and Presidio county areas have directly correlated increases in crimes, including driving while intoxicated, driving without a valid license (including commercial trucks), theft, drug possession (personal use) and drug possession (manufacture and intent to distribute), evading arrest, felony assault, solicitation (of prostitution), and a host of related misdemeanor crimes.
The already stressed system, in dealing with border-related incarcerations is out of jail capacity. Law enforcement is stretched thin to begin with, so response times to criminal activity, combined with the distances that must be traveled for response combined with an increase in criminal activity rate to stretch the system to the point of breaking.
The level of criminal activity directly impacts the quality of life for area residents, who have not had to deal with these problems in the region, at least directly, before the impending threat that this particular industrial development brings.
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The Big Bend Conservation Alliance is excited to partner with the Presidio County Historical Commission and the Center for Big Bend Studies (CBBS) at Sul Ross State University, among others, to revive the Ruidosa Church restoration project. Boasting perhaps the largest traditional adobe arches in Texas, El Corazon Sagrado de la Iglesia de Jesus, Ruidosa was built by local townspeople in the early 1900s and used for decades for weddings, funerals, and Sunday mass. But as the town’s population began to decline in the 1950s, the church fell into disrepair and began to deteriorate. By 1991, its condition had reached a point that the Catholic Diocese of El Paso slated it for demolition. Fortunately, public outcry forced them to reverse their decision.
In 2006, through grants from the Texas Historical Commission (THC) and others, the church was stabilized and part of the left front tower was rebuilt. However, due to funding shortages, the project was abandoned and the church was, once again, left to the forces of nature.
This year, in an unprecedented development, the Catholic Diocese agreed to deed the church to Presidio County—a critical first step toward creating the “Friends of the Ruidosa Church”—a dedicated 501(c)3 organization to be formed in order to raise funds through tax-deductible donations. In the coming months, the BBCA plans to assist in developing a restoration plan and fundraising strategy to restore and protect this historically and architecturally significant vernacular structure. Stay tuned for future updates!
Dear Kelcy Warren,
We, the undersigned, as members and supporters of the Big Bend Conservation Alliance, respectfully urge you to re-route the Trans-Pecos Pipeline.
We are an extremely diverse group of people who care deeply about the Big Bend. Some of us are landowners whose land is being condemned, some are residents who fear for our safety and quality of life, some are Texans who live outside the region but consider it our own backyard.
We are musicians, artists, attorneys, archeologists, astronomers, business owners, politicians, veterans, students, university professors, religious leaders, former petroleum engineers and, perhaps most importantly, ranchers.
The Trans-Pecos Pipeline will cross land belonging to private landowners, many of whom have lived on and worked these ranches for generations. As the oldest industry in Texas, ranching is the source of almost every iconic image that defines this state. To condemn their lands for private gain would be to dishonor that history, to treat our heritage as if it means nothing.
An even greater concern is the impact the pipeline would have on the region’s ecological integrity. Because of its incredible beauty and biological intactness, the Big Bend is hands-down the most revered part of Texas. That it has remained largely untouched by industry only underscores and deepens that significance.
For these reasons—and many others—the construction of a massive industrial natural gas pipeline threatens to destroy what we treasure about this region. If this pipeline is built, it opens the door to other industrial infrastructure. It opens the door to the whole of the oil and gas industry.
How is it that such a precious place—indeed the crown jewel of Texas—can be threatened by a project intended solely for a foreign country? How is it that another country can determine the route of a pipeline in the U.S. and then have it built by exercising the power of eminent domain?
How can it be that the state of Texas would allow a foreign country the right to condemn Texas land? Especially land that so greatly reflects our heritage?
But perhaps the greatest question we have, and the real point of this letter, is why this pipeline is being routed through the most beautiful and ecologically intact part of our great state—especially when it could be re-routed along existing, largely non-contested easements?
Such a re-route may cost more, but we firmly believe it is the right thing to do.
Kelcy, everyone knows you are capable of great things and we feel this is a rare opportunity for you to demonstrate that integrity. In fact, rerouting this pipeline may be one of the greatest chances of your lifetime—a true opportunity to shine.
As a neighbor and fellow Texan, we ask that you stand with us to preserve this national treasure and the rights of the people who live here. We ask you to please reroute the Trans-Pecos Pipeline.
A copy of the first ad as published in the Dallas Morning News can be seen HERE
A copy of the second ad as published in the Dallas Morning News can be seen HERE
Terry Allen, Artist/songwriter
Steve Anderson, Attorney
Wes Anderson, Film Director
Suzanne Bailey, Affected Landowner
Tom Beard, Condemned Landowner
Val Beard, Condemned Landowner
Jim Bones, Photographer
Chuck Brodsky, Musician
Jon Brooks, Musician
Mary Bruton, Photographer
Fran Christina, Musician
Dana Cooper, Musician
David Crum, La Junta Heritage Center
Peter Coyote, Actor
Ann Daugherty, Rancher
Martha Beard Duncan, Condemned Landowner
Cory Van Dyke, Filmmaker/businessman
James Evans, Photographer
Joselyn Fenstermacher, Botanist
Pete Gallego, Former Congressman
Sharron Reed Gavin, Event Organizer
Trey Gerfers, Translator
Coyne Gibson, Engineer
Vicki Gibson, Photographer
Jim Glendinning, Author
Fr. Jeremiah C. Griffin, Episcopal Priest
Patty Griffin, Musician
James Gwyn, Musician
Jennie Lyn Hamilton, Artist/producer
Butch Hancock, Musician
Amy Hardberger, Professor
Greg Harkins, Musician
Jo Harvey, Actress/artist
Wenonah Hauter, Food And Water Watch
Paul Hawken, Author
Terri Hendrix, Musician
Sara Hickman, Musician
Ray Wylie Hubbard, Musician
Randy Jackson, Musician
Jacob Jaeger, Photographer
Tommy Lee Jones, Actor/rancher
Flavin Judd, Judd Foundation
Michã¨le Judd, Psychoanalyst
Rainer Judd, Judd Foundation
Teresa Cigarroa Keck, Attorney
David Keller, Archeologist
Liz Lambert, Hotelier
Matt Lara, Musician/electrical Engineer
Laurie Lewis, Musician
Richard Linklater, Film Director
Jessica Lutz, Photographer
Travis Lutz, Rancher
Tom Mangrem, Affected Landowner
Mattie Matthaei, Contractor
James Mcmurtry, Musician
Larry Mcmurtry, Author
George Mcwilliams, Attorney
Gurf Morlix, Musician
Alan Munde, Musician
Scrappy Jud Newcomb, Musician
Luc Novovitch, Brewster County Commissioner
Gene Nowell, Landowner
Kay Nowell, Musician
Michael O’connor, Musician
Pilar Pedersen, Rancher
Jean Hardy Pittman, Businesswoman
Nicol Ragland, Filmmaker
Trevor Reichmann, Musician
Sister Elizabeth Riebschlaeger, Nun
Marjie Scott, Professor
Gene Sentz, Montana Outfitter
Katie Holmes Shore, Musician
Margaret Shugart, Sommelier
Chris Sibley, Documentarian
Hiram Sibley, Condemned Landowner
Liz Sibley, Condemned Landowner
Rachel Sibley, Condemned Landowner
Jennifer Smith, Biologist
Michael Smith, Musician
Julie Speed, Artist
Debra Spriggs, Condemned Landowner
James Spriggs, Condemned Landowner
Simone Swan, Author
Cary Swinney, Musician
Eric Taylor, Musician
Lonn Taylor, Historian
Susan Lindfors Taylor, Musician
Martin Terry, Botanist
Nick Terry, Artist
Elizabeth Wills, Musician
Owen Wilson, Actor
Carol Woodward, Condemned Landowner
Colton Woodward, Condemned Landowner
Lowell Woodward, Condemned Landowner
Barry Zavah, Reverend
Dawson Plowman, Student At Sul Ross
Virginia Brotherton, Concerned Citizen
David Tullos, Texas Free
Judy Burns, Social Worker
Rachel Thornton, Teacher
Maya Mcelroy, School Librarian
Daniel Osborne, Facilities Director
Lindsey Griffin, Student
Ralph White, Musician
Laurie Holman, Teacher
Mike Bruce, Scientist
C.p. Carter, Artist
Lehra Gordon, Sound Engineer
Glenda Luttrell, Mother, Barista
Juan Melchor, Student
Martha Gluck, Art Teacher
Diana Damon Walker, Teacher
Grant E. Minroe, Professional Assessor
Ashley Baker, Archaeologist
Cheryl Smith, Intake Worker
Hank Alrich, Musician
Adam Pereira, Designer
Kris Hughes, Writer
Roger Polson, Communicator
Marty Lehde, Landowner
Tim Ajax, Sanctuary Director
Chris Dulaney, Naturalist
Sarah Owens, Graphic Designer
Baylis Laramore, Musician
Dodie Sweeney, Organic Farmer
Kleo Maxwell, Guide
Adam Baker, Restaurateur
Angela Murrell, Photographer
Jason Murrell, Drone Operator, Filmmaker
David Henderson, Graduate Sul Ross State University
Montse Garcia, Federal Law Enforcement
Ken Oatman, Veteran
Hollis B Horn, Mechanic
Tyler Gene Davis, Musician Texan
Sara Kennedy-mele, Pilates In The Barnâ€
Peter Westfall, Musician
Heather Klebs, Artist
Neenah Friedheim, Fundraiser
Larry Wang, Plumber
Brenda Purser, Native Texan
Eric Evinczik, Teacher
Jonathan Spivey, Retail
Shannon Grow-garrett, Natural Beauty Appreciator
Sandra Currie, Art Sales
Jane Hart, Educator
Dianna Watkins, Airline Employee
Karen Webb Hachman
Chris Sweeney, Farmer
Kathleen Romine, Painter, Photographer, Writer
Perry Cozzen, Writer
Dana Maaske, State Worker Environmentalist
Faira Colley, Flight Administration
Maria Estella Cortez, Baker
Saarin Keck, Local Business Owner
Mary Bell Lockhart, Democratic Party Chair
Brittany Villegas, Student
Daisy Oâ€™connor, Singer/songwriter
Mike Perry, Editor
Tamara Sorenson, Stained Glass Artist
Jeff Mcclure, Artist
Thomas Lancaster, Artist
Robert Kinsell, Artist
Mark Hays, Musician
Joanne Day, Microbiologist
Jim Stieve, Future Home Owner In The Big Bend
David Hollander, Cinemarfa
Chris Green, Videographer
Chris Hawkes, Songwriter/musician
Gwendolyn Sky, Artist
Brittney Rodriguez, Event Coordinator
Debbie King, Teacher
Will Mederski, Photographer, Willmederski.com
Richard Mintz, Non-profit Ceo, Retired Attorney, Musician”
Steve Kilpatrick, President, Kec Inc.
Jeremy Holmsley, Self Employed
Michael Malone, Artist/craftsman
Christopher Otis, Student
Bill Salmon, Retired Industrial Electrician
Shelley Atwood, Jewelry Artist
John Kuehne, Resident
Nicole Trevino, Health Educator
Ted Samsel, Cartographer
Kaci Fullwood, Business Owner
Paula Hammon, Native Texan
Lise Brenner, Writer And Artist
Rodolfo Parra, Organizer
Jan Seides-murphy, Musician
Kk Mcmillan, Concerned Visitor
Vicki Ward, Retired Educator
Patrick Finnegan, Professor
Jake Elsner, Apt. Sales Director
Michelle Canfield, Native Texan
Thomas J Wilmore
Mike Hidalgo, Musician
Tom Wilmore, Former Texan
Jim Caligiuri, Writer
Robert Flanders, Retired
Jessica Roberts, Paralegal
Caroline Dusti Lockey, Artist, Landowner
Robin Rather, Conservationist
Rebecca Smith, 6th Generation Texan, Mom, Grandmother Great Grandmother
Theresa Dimenno, Photographer
Allyson Fera Santucci, Interpreter,paralegal,and Musician
Kathleen Lohr, Ayurvedist
Lezah Marrs, Nurse/Big Bend Camper
Daniel Thomas Phipps, Musician
Steve Schwelling, Musician
Misty Flowers, Musician
Rachel Rodman, Entrepreneur
Karen Crenshaw, Weaver
Sandra Mathis, Hiker
Tex Toler, Economic Development Specialist
Brian Standefer, Musician
Beth Chrisman, Musician
Dick Lane, Photographer, Teacher
Chuck Turvey, The Town Electrician
Wayne Allen, Engineer/naturalist
Preston Rittenhouse, Photographer
Marc Arevalo, Photographer/rancher
Jean Landry, Set Decorator
Renee Mick, Librarian
Denis M. Hannigan, Musician, Photographer
Ezekiel Adam White, Grape Farmer
Aubany Gonzales, Histologist/native Of The Big Bend Area
Martha Latta, Landscape Architect
Mary Lou Saxon, Photographer
Jeremy Tharpe, Former Alpine Resident
Lissa Prater, Big Bend Lover
Ashley Compton, Therapist
Mauricio, Creative Designer
Cindy Scroggins, Texan
Daryl Scroggins, Writer
Roger Siglin, 50 Year Resident If The Big Bend
Nicki Ittner, Producer
Leticia Trejo, Sales Specialist
Eva Jannasch, Sales Manager
Mary Baxter, Artist
Neil Chavigny, Engineer
Mike Marks, Retired Teacher
Jan Woodward, Author
Victoria Hamilton, Musician/therapist
Elizabeth Redding, Docent Chinati Foundation
Charles Mary Kubricht, Artist
Malinda Beeman, Dairy Farmer
Frank Landis, Lover Of Big Bend
Betsy Blaydes, Retired Speech Language Pathologist
Mary Etherington, Gallery Director
Eric Batiste, Musician
Lynne Hunter, Concerned Citizen/environmentalist, Potential Tourist
David Carroll, Musician
Judith Fairly, Artist, Writer
Debbi Davenport, Musician/artist, Ranching Family, My Great-grandfather E.k. Fawcett Was On The Board That Helped Secure Big Bend To Become A Treasured National Park To Preserve And Protect The Beauty And Ecological Integrity)
Lindy Benton-muller, Texan, Actor
Mike Marshall, Retired
Dale Johnson, Musician
Suzi Gruschkus, Massage Therapist Owner Of The Well
Leslie Hopper, Resident
Ronnie Johnson, Musician
Cynthia M. Perry, Retired Newspaper Editor
Brian Shugart, Retired NPS Employee
Karen J. Little, Biologist
Buck Johnston, Shopkeeper
Tara Devine, Business Owner
Kim Hays, Landowner
Christina Intravartolo, Mother
Camp Bosworth, Artist
Joseph Gardner, Non Profit Gallery Manager
Gary Mcelhaney, Sculptor/teacher
Chrislyn Lawrence, Artist
Jessica Jones, Massage Therapist
Edna Queen, Concerned Citizen
Mallory Jones, Massage Therapist
Michael Jensen, Adjacent Landowner
Steve Walker, Surveyor
Alice Quinlan, Producer
Randall Bryant, Senior Software Engineer
Raymond Browning, Pilot
Kay Crum, Retired
Rajneesh N Shetty, Independent Consultant
Deborah Swart, Landowner
Trina White, Horticulture
Karen Nakakihara, Ceramic Artist
Lissa Hattersley, Musician
Tedi Elliott, Citizen
Jack Murphy, Architect
Robert Mallouf, Archaeologist
Lisa Roe, Writer/editor
Guillermo E. Silva, Botanist
Victoria Kostadinova, Advocate
Kathy Hibbert, Ranch Wife
Jo Rae Di Menno, Publicist
Patricia Runyan, Presidio Resident/la Junta Heritage Center
Will Courtney, Musician
Courtney Knudsen, Bookseller, Barista, Explorer
Rose Anderson Lewis, Jewelry Designer
Caitlin Murray, Archivist, Judd Foundation
Betty Burns, Retired Teacher
Sandy Strunk, Voice For Gaia
Jennie Lyn Hamilton, Producer/artist
Shane Connor, Attorney
Katie Stellar, Musician
Michael Mileski, University Professor
Bob Miles, Retired State Park Superintendent; Writer
Susan Curry, Artist And Gallery Owner
Louise Kirchen, Artist/musician
Betty Moore, Bookstore Mgr
Obea Billing, Usps Contractor
Adrienne Evans, Acupuncturist
Analiese Kennedy, Born And Raised Texan/senior Project Manager
Sonja Brewer, Manager
Jeff Gavin, Designer
Amelia Sweethardt, Farmer
Alec Friedman, Marfian
Mattie Matthaei, Brewster County Land Owner, Business Owner
Donna Pacheco, Financial
Scott May, Caretaker
Larry Cabaniss, Retired Texan
Rae Anna Hample, Educator
Keaton B Whitmire, Musician
Margaret Travis, Acupuncturist
Audrey Cotton, Designer
Connie Farnsworth, Texan
Garrett Mack, Chef
Mike Sobin, Acupuncturist
J. Hill, Librarian
Pamela Priddy, Teacher Terlingua/ Big Bend National Park
John Forsythe, Retired National Park Service
Pamela Priddy, Teacher
Lois Glasen, Retired
Adele Powers, Educator
Amelie Urbanczyk, School Administrator
Mary Bell Lockhart, County Democratic Chair
Alan Byboth, Biologist
Oscar Cobos, Minister/activist
Darcie Jane Fromholz, Texan
Kym Flippo, Bird Guide
Mark Flippo, Ornithologist
Mary Anne Gavin, Teacher
Michael Parker, Writer
Lucy Tcherniak, Filmmaker
Deborah Fazackerley, Filmmaker
David Sullivan, Texan
Julie Balovich, Attorney
Deanna Root, Photographer Marketing
Dr John Paul Schwartz, Physician/ Radio Host/ Song Writer
Seph Itz, Colonel, Usaf Ret)
Cheryll Frances, Artist
John Tuck, Counselor
Coby Cox, Tattooer/artist
Kathleen Griffith, Home Owner, Dental Hygienist
Tom Griffith, Home Owner, Gis Specialist
Ashley Mccue, Yoga
Janet Gilmore, Fan Of Big Bend
Conrad Hibbert, Ranch Manager
Travis Walker, Filmmaker
Katy Spiller, Teacher
Robert G. Oâ€™donnell, Computer Consultant, Retired
Mary Crouchet, Realtor
Carolyn Burr, Landowner
Joe Edd Waggoner, Photographer, Sul Ross Graduate Student
Melody Mock, Grew Up In Alpine And Hold It Close To My Heart
Kathleen Griffith, Dental Hygiene
Mary Goodwin, Bank Examiner
Chelsea Coburn, Medical Device Executive
Tim Kohtz, Artist
Thomas Reed, Educator
Nikie Cotter, Property Owner
Leo Tynan, Physician
David Byboth, Audio Engineer/ Musician
Joe Eddie Davis, Voter
Cina Forgason, Rancher/filmmaker
Sunshine Osborne, River Company
Cina Forgason, Landowner
Erica Thibodeaux, Therapist
Kristin Smith, Homemaker
Cynthia Mcalister, Professional Educator
Jack Lisa Copeland, Citizens Of The Southwest
Toni Jensen, Author
It2 Jonathan Acosta, Usn Veteran/graphic Designer
Alexis Smith, Jewelry Designer
Sophie Jung, Artist
Pam Brewer-fink, Retired
Sandy Harper, Anthropologist
Jan Bozarth, Writer
Heather Fullerton, Physician
Jim Morris, Real Estate Appraiser
Sandra Billingsley, Brewster County Landowner
Andrew Hardin, Musician
Brian T. Atkinson, Author
Lou Mckaughan, Big Bend National Park Guide
Jenni Finlay, Jenni Finlay Promotions
Laurie Hall, Photographer
Lindsey Silva, Real Estate Appraisal Assistant
Rory Grametbaur, Musician/artist
Carsten Williams, Classical Musician
Patty Manning, Botanist
Kyla Phillips, Arborist And Landscape Coordinator
Michelle Laseur, Phd Peace Activist
Ditrik Tosh, Title Insurance
Monty Oâ€™neil, Art Educator Former Resident
Nancy Lemon, Tattooed Grandma
John Chipman, Musician
Benjamin Gonzalez, Preserver Of Things For Future Generations
Priscilla Promises, Concerned Citizen
Penny Jo Pullus, Humanitarian
Emily Mcmillan Tucker, Landscape Architect
Richard Reynolds, Photographer, Naturalist
Kim Schlossberg, Business Owner
Kevin Irvin, Retired
Veronique Matthews, Land Owner
Kellie Salome, Concerned Citizen
Kris Fischer-toler, Educator/terlingua Landowner
Beth Galiger, Musician
Eileen Wells, Lmt
Jenn Canady, Software Engineer, Retired
Mary Keating Bruton, Photographer
Al Moss, Music Promoter
Amy S, Humble Family In Alpine
Anita White, Biology/geology Educator
Susan Coburn, Retired
Glenn Justice, Writer/historian
Rowena Tucker, Teacher
Samuel Cason, Archaeologist
Terri Baker, Environmentalist, Landowner
Walter Goodwin, Software Engineer
Melissa Morgan, Self-employed
Bruce Bates, Electrician Ascep
Austin Alexander, Musician Actor Business Owner
Tara Levin Mack, Teacher
Teresa Swann, Business Manager/fabricated Steel Products
Cassidy Woodall, Teacher
Scott Faris, Teacher
Miles Zuniga, Musician
Sandra Solum, Retail Salesperson
Pat Mcmahon, Land Owner, Sunny Glen
Clark Cordell, Musician
Johanna Nevares, Teacher
Kat Malstead, Writer
Jesse Taylor Cole, Naturalist
Jim, Test Engineer
Mark Daugherty, Rancher
Chris Masterson, Musician
John Carlisle Moore, Artist
Eleanor Whitmore, Musician
Cayenne Daugherty, Rancher
Kristopher Wade, Musician
Stephen Price, Actor
Cary Allen, Instructional Aide
Robin Mclain, Director Of Operations
Patty Sanguily, Realtor
Beth Fitzgerald, Realtor
Elise Gerhart, Farmer, Daughter Of Condemned Landowners
Diana Gluck, Educator
Ali Holder, Musician/teacher
Robert Phillips, Geoscientist Retired)
Rocki Holder, Teacher
Bill Holder, Jeweler
Stacy Guidry, Business Owner
Anne Roberts, Accounting Clerk
Anna Worthy, Tax Payer
Karen Pate, Visitor Services Manager-chinati Foundation
Forrest A. Griffen, Radio Announcer/broadcasting
Vicki Word, Big Bend Country Native
Joanie Grace, Educator And Polyglot
Sara Beth Teel, Geography/history Teacher
Richard Bullock, Sound Recordist
Kathy Halbower, Painter
Dawn Carlton, Teacher
Erin Fiske, Personal Chef
Bonnie Whitmore, Singer Songwriter/musician
Kris Savage, Conservationist
Catrice Tkadlec, Realtor
Anthony Mcspadden, Content Director Landowner
Joe Allen, Web Developer
Alison Glynn, Librarian/lover Of Big Bend
Amy Annelle, Musician And Songwriter
Deborah H. Chilton, Social Worker
Roberto Lujan. Jumano Apache Nation
Emy Taylor, Musician/attorney/environmentalist
Lee Dunkelberg, Writer/broadcaster
Stephanie Spell, Lawyer
Tom Curry, Artist
Kristen Driscoll, Writer
Jimmy Gilliam, Old Man Wanting Positive Change
Dr Jerry Bayless, Retired
Rebecca Chesterman, Mrs
Carol Tosh, Speech And Language Pathologist
Bonnie Whitmore, Singer Songwriter/musicia
Roberto Lujan, Jumano Apache Nation
Emy Taylor, Musician/attorney/environmental Give A Shitist
Dr Jerry Bayless, Retired Educator
Gail Miller, Speech Pathologist
Danny Zincke, Director Of Parks And Recreation
Erin Mcclure, Organic Gardener
Ann Wade, Musician/teacher
Mike Huber, Business Owner And Frequent Visitor To Big Bend
Clarisse Tranchard, Artist
Elam Blackman, Teacher’s Assistant
Adelaide Bevilaqua, Marine Scientist
Cheryl G Smith, Costumer
Kerry Green, Disabled Former Golf Course Superintendent Of Your Lajitas Resort
Mishell B. Kneeland, Attorney
Melanie Jessup, Mother Concerned About Kids’ Future Homeland
Kendra Kinsey, Artist
Tsuki Brooks, Jewelry Artist
Beth Oliver, Designer
Rawles Williams, Novelist
Elena Eidelberg, Tile Maker
Ashley Harris, Administrator
Cheryl Robbins, Supervisor
Joseph Hall, Businessman
Carla Lowry, Photographer/antique Dealer
Tommye Linan, Cpa
Nicholas Mitchell, Animal Care Specialist
Shelley Carlson, Retired
Clover Cochran, Landscaper/bronze Sculptor
Texas Pollinator Powwow, 501c3 Conservation Organization
Craig Childs, Author
Carmen Ganser, Teacher
Cheryl Brown Lohr, Teacher/nanny
Bob Murphy, Camper
Lisa Cradit, Camper And Hiker
Rodney Marsden, Full Time Texan
Susannah Kellar, Member Of The Church Of Big Bend
Chet O’keefe, Musician
Michael Smith, Psychological Associate
Jay Dee Hicks, Musician And Citizen.
Maggie Whitley, Social Worker/concerned Texan
Susan Avery, Retired
Bruce Salmon, Musician
Jana Laven, Musician/retired Teacher
Andreas Laven, School Administrator/musician
John Bonfardeci, Software Developer
Becky Krisher, Slp
Josh Blaine, Grocer
Roger Black, Designer
Glenda Green, Court Reporter/alpine Landowner
Jacqueline Bow M. Ed, Lpc, Mental Health Therapist, Local Property Landowner
Jacqueline Bow, Mental Health Therapist, Local Property Landowner
Dixie Garlick, Homeowner Resident
Sandi Turvan, Landowner
Sara Bow, Nurse, Land Property Owner
Jack Bow, Retired Pharmasist, Land Property Owner
Anastasia Bowley, Teacher
Nancy Burton, Homemaker
Sherry Bonfardeci, Registered Nurse
Michael Maxwell, Fisherman
Kathy Shannon, Thrift Store Clerk
Claude Shannon, Carlsbad, Nedical Center
Amy Donovan, Texas Citizen
Pamela Yates, Hospice Nurse
Lisa Fancher, Musician/lawyer
Timothy C. Mcelroy, Retired
Nancy Hollen Black, Writer And Mountain Hugger
Sandie Smith, Biologist
Alyce Santoro, Artist
Lucas Schneider, It
Rick Ziegler, Landowner
Kathryn Runnells, Rancher
Robin Porter, Retired Health Care Worker
Damian Graham, Administrative Asst.
Candice Quino, Yoga Instructor
Daniel Dibona, Md, Retiref
Nancy J. Wood, Local Resident
Eliot Stone, Producer
Cindy Ward, Farmer/rancher
W M Kindred
Amanda Pearcy, Musician
Robert Arber, Printer/publisher
Whitney Hoang, Graphic Designer
Tim Moyer, Software Engineer
Jerry Ford Sublett, Voice Actor
Corey Hewitt, Retired
Zorayma Lackey, Teacher
Jennifer Baur, Wears Many Hats
Rick Vanfleet, Transportation
Kathy Siepak, Big Bend Landowner
Aimee Roberson, Conservation Biologist
Alan Retamozo, Musician
James V Neuman, Sheetmetal Mechanic Ret.
Elizabeth Holaday, Editor
Charlie Llewellin, Writer, Photographer
Evangeline Harper, Mother
Tom Shortt, Affected Landowner
Joe R. Pineda, Landowner
Lauren Satterwhite, Administrative Assistant
Jade Spear, Lvn/srsu Student
Vanessa Van Gilder
Jeannie Burns, Musician
Gabriel Acosta, Facility Mgr
Kw Whitley, Artist
Nancy Whitlock, Artist
Richard Hinkel, Land Owner, Contractor
Kristian Rogers, Biologist
Jill Doyle, Landowner
Shelly Bugenis, Social Services With Idd Population
Melissa L. Tucker, Furniture Restorer
Amy Raskin, Rn, School Nurse
Lee Elder, Licensed Professional Counselor
Kurt Schneider, Retired
Richard Day, Md, Critical Care Physician
Bianca De Leon, Writer
Rosalie John Kobetich, Artist/carpenter
Lara Wasniewski, River Guide
Jana La Brasca, Researcher
Samuel R. Lawrence
Beth Cox, Retired
Stacia Cedillo, Phd Student
Roger Stephens, Attorney
Thomas Dreyer, Artist
Brad Little, Outdoor Educator
Jason Lawson, Manufacture
Seth Winkelmann, Firefighter
Susan Brown, Retired
Siobhã¡n Bohnacker, Photo Editor
Margo Black, Artist
Cindy Parker, IT Consultant
Royce Brown, Retired
Grant Keith, Geologist
Chelsea Coburn, Medical Sales Rep/ Brewster County Land Owner
Zeek Harris, Retired
Earl H Baker Iii, President, Baker Boats Inc.
Alan Baker, Camper, Nature Lover, Father
Michelle Tellez, Writer
Theron Francis, Teacher, Srsu
Kate Moyse, Artist
Elizabeth Fisher, Teacher/artist
Bisimwa Mitima, Sul Ross State University Student
Margaret Bentley, Writer/teacher
Nina Puro, Poet
Clarissa Mcmullen, Student
Leslie Chavez, College Student
Michael Liston, Tour Bus Driver
Rachel Llanez, Administrative Assistant Family Crisis Center Of The Big Bend
Lee Elder, Counselor
Chris Pappas, Local Food Provider
Bryan Mayo, Film Business
Adan Yharte Escareno, Retired
Peter Cooke, Projectionist
Tyler Leverenz-soetaert, Prevention Specialist
Jonathan Spivey, Retailer
Regina Dupree, Landowner
Sam Sorensen, Farmer
Nicole Cohen, Designer
Cristina Rodriguez, Teacher
Jeri Beil, Accounting/office Manager
Philip Boyd, Research Assistant
Joe Stevens, Actor
Danny Garrett, Artist
Peggy Elliott, Educator
Leah Cohen, Lmt
Jimmy Hawkins, Singer Songwriter
Patricia Reid, Court Reporter
Rebecca Nunez-stubbs, Teacher
Katie Sangl, Housewife
Catherine Crumpton, Former Grasslands Ecologist
Gail Lord, Public Relations
Dustin Pevey, Carpenter
Sandy Nelson, Veterinarian, West Texas Native, Sul Ross Alumni
Tracy Stevenson, Retired Computer Analyst
Laura Atkinson, Advanced Sommelier
Igor Negovetic, Computerist
Amanda Fuller, Texan
Elizabeth Redding, Educator
John Lang, Film Producer
Freda Walker, Educational Consultant
Vivian Diettrich Caputo, Land Steward
Raleigh Darnell, Sul Ross Alumni
Eileen Wells, Lmt
Clark Cordell, Musician
Kat Malstead, Writer
Amanda Bowman, Government Employee
Dina Tagliabue, Teacher
Carrie Mclaughlin, Conservationist And Naturalist
Jennifer Boomer, Photographer
Kathleen Green, Creative Director
Lee Hamilton, University Professor
James Carpenter, Condemned Landowner
Chuck Smith, Retired
Miles Adams, Musician
Sara Kritschgau, Scheduler
Abby Boyd, Alpine Resident
Nina Dominguez, Humanitarian
Erin Feil, Producer
Amy Ellis, Teacher
Amy Hanks, Teacher
Kindra Welch, Mom, Seventh Generation Texan, Architect
Georgina Cuautenco, Human Being
John O’neill, Talent Biyer
Connie Winkler, Cancer Registrar
Hunter Oatman-stanford, Journalist
Kris Jorgenson, Professor Of Mathematics
Lisa Haigh, Manager
Lana Lesley, Artist
Lisa Purser, Caregiver
Criselda Rivas, Writer And Producer
Michael S. Livingston, Educator
Nancy Clingan, Retired Therapist
Betty-lee Hepworth, Architect
Steven Beckett, Director Of Sales, Retired
Karl Horne, Electrician
Terry L. Ervin, Retired Corrosion Control Specialist
Leonard Pearson, Retired
Christine Hinkle, Landowner
Louisa Suta, Acupuncturist
Tj Hunt, Native Texan
Jack Jeansonne, Teacher
Andrew Todd, Tech Consultant
Nancy D. West, Interior Designer
Don Young, Artist, Naturalist, Writer
Mallory Bass, Writer
Stephen C. Byars, Commercial Real Estate C-21 Judge Fite Company
Alexandra Kirkilis, Wedding Photographer
Eva Windel, Nurse
Shannon Smith, Archaeologist
Barbara White, Health Professional
William Schubert, Executive
Debora Young, Don’s Monkey/ Artist
Donna Schubert, Producer
Stuart Crane, Physician
Caroline Metzler, Retired
Andrew Pressman, Musician/data Analyst
Garrett Warren, Environmental Education Instructor
Rev. Jean Ocuilnn, Land Owner
Kevin Ocuilinn, Land Owner
Mattthew Quinet, Musician
Melissa Garcia-edwards, Senior Graphic Designer
John Delamater, Texan
Christy Hays, Musician
Vance Tomey, Broker
Robert Hibbitts, Regulatory Coordinator
Tom Lehr, Musician
Elizabeth Doyel, Executive Director Tx League Of Conservation Voters
David Fenster, Filmmaker
Chris King, Affected Land Owner
Willa Finley, Botanist, Author, Photographer
Matthew Chasco, Administrative Work
Laura Jimenez Matuszewski
Laura Windel Matuszewski, D.d.s.
Norman Duble, Jeff Davis Democratic Chair
Mary Pat Rafferty, Retired Teacher
Kendra Dehart, Professor
Jill Cassidy, Communicator
Robert Arber, Printer Publisher
Laura Copelin, Curator
Julia West, Educator
Cynthia Thornton, Retired Physician
Jay Brousseau, Photographer
Cam King, Songwriter/musician
Olva Hollowell, Artist
Jeff Klinger, Medical Sales
Esteban Ortiz, Greenlatinos
Russell Clepper, Musician
Roger Siglin, Retired 50 Year Resident
Dick Deguerin, Lawyer
Margaret Julie” Finch, Ex Marfa Resident, Grandmother, Activist Preservationist
Derek Osborn, Manager, Comm/data Business
Erik Baier, Artist
Josh T Franco, Latino Collections Specialist, Archives Of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
Jennifer Lane, Artist
Karen Oakley, Decorative Painter
Vajra, Special Projects Archer Trooper
Margaret Julie” Finch
Margaret Julie” Finch, Teacher
Christopher Weir, Admin, Artist
Bob Rampy, Consultant
Kate Thayer, Business Owner
Noble Baker, Marathon Business Owner
Alaine Berg, Big Bend Hospitality Owner
Pradipta Ray, Scientist
Grace Gibson, Librarian
Julie Doyle, Entrepreneur/music
Isabel Mateo, Student
Corey Leamon, Product Designer
Wendell Smith, Retired
Ryan Foerster, Artist
Francoise Smith, Retired
Dan Athey, Software Engineer
Nancy B.mims, Retired Rn
Stephanie Lopez, Librarian
Lindsey Verrill, Musician
Bernie Zelazny, Bbcac Financial Officer
John Manuel, Business Owner
Dan Wonsowski, Alpine Resident
Jessica Giesey, Photographer
Danielle Walker, Artist
Jane Van Tamelen, Artist/property Manager
Joseph Motley, Archaeologist
Kari Nichols, Catastrophe Claims Processor
Josh Williams, Archaeologist
Belinda Elmgren, Master Naturalist
Jeani Stoddard, Educator
Jeff Bate, Citizen
Anne Marie Hilscher, Citizen
L. G. Lindsay, Big Bend Resident
Charles Ford, Lover Of Big Bend
Roger W. Phillips, Attorney
Deborah Sparshott, Artist
Chief William Hoff, Walelu Township Chief Tsalagiyi Nvdagi Tribe
Wesley B. Tinney, Teacher
Marcia Evers, Costume Seamstress Film And Television
Adrian Perez, Iron Worker And Ordained Minister
Scott Crouch, Insurance Broker
Nicole Vidor, Real Estate Broker
Joe Mama Nitzberg, Artist
Justin Parr, Texan
Ruth Wimberly, Tech Support
Jeremy Shearer, Sr. Production Artist
Katherine Mcallister, Artist
Gerzson Z. Nyiri, Arborist/small Business Owner
Roger Flores, Sales Specialist
Dolores Morales, Mrs
Gilbert Hernandez, Graphic Artist
Scott Dill, Architectural Designer
Lora Madden, Rn
Susan Jennings, Artist
Curtis L. Moore, Funeral Director
Lorie Solis, Owner- Renewable Republic Urban Farm And Solar Pv
Kristina Koger, Entrepreneur Pet Industry)
Charles Smith, Camper And Hiker
Lee Hamilton, University Professor
Cindy De La Cruz, Retired IT Consultant
Ramiro De La Cruz
Joy Short, Credit Manager, Utilities
Cab Gilbreath, Investment Manager
John R Bryant, Designer/builder
Connie Beth Graves
Kathleen Thompson, Executive
Carolyn Wonderland, Texan
Jewell Johnson, Doctoral Candidate
Maggie Duval, Event Producer
Hunter Tripp, Student
Tracy Mcbride, Native Texan
Becky Cockerham, Retired
Kathleen Thornberry, Artist
Lecia Ellis, Vp
Noah Arnold, Law Enforcement
Jane Clarke, Business Owner
Susan Kirr, Citizen
Eric B. Mims, Md, Physician
Kerry Knorpp, Founding Director, Historic Texas Ranches
Sherry Scott, Freelance Designer/ Developer
Clover Cochran, Landscaper/bronze Sculptor
Kari Houston Osborn, Rn, 7th Generation Texan
Charlie Parrish, Stunt Coordinator
Beth Parrish, Riding Instructor
Mary Beth Raven
Rainer Bruckhoff, Teacher
Jay Dee Allen, Jr, Commercial Real Estate
Laura R. Broyles, Homemaker
Michael L. Broyles, Physics Professor, Collin College
E. Dan Klepper, Artist/klepper Gallery
Barry Hanley, Stuntman/actor/writer
Bruce Hughes, Musician/songwriter
Robert Rosen, Executive Director Application Strategy
Lynn Barney, Encounters Examiner
Heather Francis, Researcher, Srsu Alumni
Jamey Garza, Designer
Constance Holt Garza, Designer
Lisa Armstrong Flood, Counselor
Belle Jaeger, Land Lover
Lori Glover, Small Business Owner
Katie Smither, Telescope Mirror Technician
Sage Keith, Native Of Far West Texas
Matthew Eskey, Musician
Judith Birdsong, Professor
Toni Eddings, Homemaker/ Oilfield Wife
Tom And Dorothy Muratori
William Walker, Owner/operator Of Trucking Company.
Clint Walker, Media/IT Technician
Katie Decker, Teacher
Russell Cowen, IT Director
Keith Sechrest, Artist/writer/stage Manager
Hallie Rose Moulton
Eric Cole Pierce, Presidio County Landowner, Resmed Territory Manager
Jordan Zadwick, Entrepreneur/musician
Benita Barnard, Realtor/property Manager
Rebecca J Stauffer, IT Hr Director, Lover Of The Big Bend Region And Concerned Texas Citizen About Preservation
Rick Dobbs, Creative Director
Laura Pacchini, Artist
Andrew Sertich, Military
Hannah Sertich, Student
Edgar Vazquez, Archaeologist
Tessa Noble, Staff Archaeologist
Melissa Seal, Hydrogeologist
Taylor Bolinger, Teacher
Terri Crossland, Artist
Benjamin Hull, Archaeologist Photographer
Jenna Mannella, In Oil And Gas Industry
Jim Bradbury, Attorney
Elizabeth Rhodes Brown, Business Owner
Alan Alpert, Mechanical Engineer, Retired
Gwynne Jamieson, Teacher
April Kuper, Teacher
Jeff Sandmann, Video Producer
Robert Warmath, Forester
D Alford, Retired
Ann G. Fenstermacher, Citizen Of The U.s.
Ken Stephens, Forester
Jennifer Conway, Legal Assistant
Elizabeth Sohns, Consultant
Ken Whitley, Writer/poet
Michael Wyatt, Lawyer
Nancy E. O’neill, Retired Attorney
Kay Plavidal, Writer
Larry Gieschen, Retired Librarian
Jeanne Addkison, Flight Attendant
June Adler, Artist
Kirk Wilson, Business Owner
L. Denny Bahm, Professional Firefighter/paramedic, Retired
Charles Childress, Retired Lawyer
Victoria Lowe, Texas Master Naturalist
Ryan Garner, Lighting Designer
Grier Brunson, Condemnation Victim
Tyler Brown, Teacher
Sherry Brown, Teacher
Hank Jamieson, Petroleum Geologist
Patti Thurman, Gourmet Food Manufacturer
David Thurman, Artist/musician
Carl Miller, Manager
Florence Walker Cox, Native Texan/ Small Business Owner
Bobby Bridger, Writer/musician
Corina Salmon, Stewardess
Sue Willers, Media Production Specialist
Jeff White, Developer And Big Bend Admirer
Virginia Platts, Cpa/atty
Kathleen Griffith, Dental Hygienist
Ralph J Yehle, Vip, Big Bend National Park
Eric Burnthorne, Jr, Managing Director
Jack Mims, Artist
Eric Burnthorne, Student
Erin Johnson, English Teacher
Valerie Pendergast, Customer Service Specialist
Marc W. Mccord, Director, Fracdallas
Terrance W. Gegenheimer
Harry Barnes, Billing Supervisor
Pamela Luther, Attorney/writer/photographer
Kristi Moncada, National Parks Conservation Association Member
Townes Phillips, Archer
Ruben Castillo Jr., Archaeologist
Savannah Watkins, Cosmetologist
Terry Cowan, Self-employed Craftsman
Bruce Cramer, Sergeant First Class, Usa Ret), Computer Consultant, Student
Rose Baca, Photojournalist
Camille Wiseman, Biodiveristy Specialist
Kelsi Wilmot, Student
Samuel Bigott, Music Teacher/ Avid Hiker
Rhett, Director Of Professional Relations/tandem Strength Balance
Michael Madewell, Information Technology
Ron Nowlan, Software Engineer
Anna Bright, Teacher
Luna K Wilson, Concerned Citizen
Kathleen Griffith, Dental Hygienist And Artist
Autumn Chappell, Lover
Jamie Schanbaum, Motivational Speaker
Fran, Computer Systems Analyst/programmer
Kristin Smith, Homemaker/texan
Andreas Laven, School Administrator Musician
C. Truan, Barista
Erin Cooper, Community Relations Coordinator At Safeplace
John Morlock, Firefighter
Kevin Remme, Musician
Colleen O’brien, Artist/interior Designer
James Carter, Teacher
Ann Wertz, Reading Coach
Jennifer Eskey, Alternative Healthcare
Michael Trafton, Business Owner
Dennis Sneed, Earth Inhabitant
Pat Condello, Concerned Citizen
Ben Richardson, Musician
Steve Berry, Observer
Tara Cuccia, Marketing Manager
Taylor Greer, Archaeologist
Jose Torres, Nature Lover
Ron Sommers, Attorney
Jana Roberts Hinkley, Educator, Retired
Kim Obrien, Writer
Ryan Lake, Musicjan
David Grissom, Musician
John Bretting, Professor
Victoria Gartman, Academic Researcher
Justin Doak, Grocer
Matthew J Mcdonough, Sales
Taylor Gibson, English Teacher
Connor Forsyth, Musician
James Tingle, Medical Technologist
Michael David Wolfe, Musician
Sally Duncan, Concerned Citizen
Tonya Robson, Water Treatment
Art Tawater, Archeology
Lawrence Todd, Professor Emeritus, Colorado State University
Bryon Schroeder, Archaeologist
Erika Blecha, Archaeologist/gis Specialist
Susan Eason, Librarian
Caleb Waters, Maintenance Supervisor
Erik Gantt, Archaeologist
Thomas W. Dorsey, Attorney
Daniella Cardia, Elementary Educator
Mary Claire Phillips, Student
Kelly D Mitchell, Architect
Barry Vacker, Professor
Valerie Twomey, SAHM
Delaney Phillips, Hiker
Joshua Smith, Ranch & Land Sales
Kristin Astourian, Manager/Sales & Songwriter
Drew Kennedy, Songwriter
Megan E. Johnson, Photographer
Larry, Program Director/Human Services
Kathryn Mcmanus, High School Student and Musician
Jennifer Prediger, Filmmaker
Richard Thornton, Enviro Programs, Patagonia, Inc.
Jill Parker Criswell, IT Analyst
Daniel Forte, Journalist
Frank Galindo, Retired U.S. Treasury / Printer
Edward Reedy, Carpenter
Kennard Laviers, Professor of Computer Science, Major USAF Retired
Jenifer Harren, Human
Carol Moore, Retired
Royce Brown, Retired
Shelley Schlemeyer Rice, Urban Beekeeper And Educator
Michele Rivero, Cota
Leo Eaton, Owner, Hallmark Townhouses, Alpine
Richard Black, Retired From Retail
Susan Covington, Legal Secretary/homeowner In Brewster County
Jeremy Rodriguez, Corporate Trainer
Linda Beranek, Principal Milagros Consulting, Environmentalist, Vp Native Prairie Association
Lindsay Scaief Riley, Attorney
Anna Henderson, University Administration
Connie Attaway, Commercial Account Admin
David Alvarez, CEO
Shawn Stephens, Systems Engineer
Tom Griffith, Retired Us Air Force IT
Joe Serio, Educator
Renee Sheldon, City Archivist, Yoga Instructor
Alexis Mebane, Gallery Attendant
Barry Vacker, Associate Professor
Max Tolleson, Student
Alexia Bonomi, Chef
Maria Valentina Sheets, Art Conservator
Eliza Segell, Social Worker
Kenneth Rains, Taxpayer
Anne Adams, Editor
Alex Wagner, Writer/filmmaker
Melinda Amptmann, Sales Executive
Amanda Eastman, Social Worker
John Scott, Picture Framer
Tommy Guy Cude, Land Owner
Sam Small, Writer
Mary Bell Lockhart, Alpine Resident And Homeowner
Betse Esparza, Businesswoman
Matt Enns, Teacher
Jack Murphy, Architect
Jan Vanliere, Landowner, Artist, Flight Attendant
Joanne Christos, Retired Nj State Ranger/state Park Police
Jose Tarin, Chef
Alyson Watson, Big Bend Visitor
Fran Tessmer, Retired
Stan C. Pully, River Guide
Jennifer Huffman, Nurse
Brenda Peneaux, Human Services
Cathy Grubbs, Retried
Michele Weston, Mother
Victor J.rodriguez, Concerned
Valley Reed, Communications Director Dallas Peace And Justice Center
Judy Sheyahshe, Native American
Deborah Natola, Owner/operator Avalon Farm Since 1987
Lydia Kelly, Retired Master Sergeant/united States Army
Linda Shafer, Exec Dir SADDS
Alison Strieker, Student
Alison Tarter, Aquatic Biologist
Amanda Pearcy, Musician
Amy Noble, Teacher
Amy Rodrigue, Manager
Amy Tompkins, Writer
Angie Black, Mom
Anita L. Wills, Executive Director
Anna Hergott, R.n.
Anna Worthy, Texan Who Cares
Annika Norton, Student
Apollo Castillo, Educator
Ashley Cass, Digital Storyteller
Aya, Yoga Instructor
Becky Krisher, Slp
Ben Nuhn, Textile Artist
Bill Jutz, Retired
Brian Cutean, Musician
Bryan Cody, Biologist
Carol Parker, Photographer
Carol Taylor, Native Texan, Land Owner
Carole Baker, Research Associate
Carolyn Bienski, Business Owner
Cecile Geary, Bookkeeper
Celeste Rogers, Concerned Citizen
Cesar Cortez, Accounts Receivable Administrator
Chaune Weber, Concerned For My Grandchildren S Future
Christie Ciavardoni, Ophthalmic Technician
Christine Crosby, Therapist
Christine Lugo, Attorney
Cindy Cook, Retired
Constance Hansen, Photographer
Courtney Texada, Operations Manager
Cunningham, 5th Generation Texan
Cynthia Acevedo, Teacher
Darcie Jane Fromholz Blackford, Texan
Darrell L. Pittillo— Pmp, Software Project Manager
David Brogren, Farmer
David Molidor, Human
Deena Shawley, Na
Dennis Hubbard, Mayor
Dennis Jay, Musician
Donna Browne, Teacher
Dorothy Daniels, Retired
Dr. Meacham, Educator
Eddie Lehwald, Musician
Elizabeth Cuccaro Meyer, Mother/student
Elizabeth Drozda, Teacher
Eric Noble, Paramedic
Erica Gibbs Sherman
Erich Fleshman, Actor
Eva Van Dyke, Pollinator Habitat Consultant
Gilad Lippa, Student
Glenda Green, Court Reporter/alpine Landowner
Hailey Davis, Student
Harry Attmore, Retired
Helen Fremin, Retiree
Hills Snyder, Artist
Holly Hague, Human
Holly Hawkins, Retail Associate
Jack Safarick Jr, Mr
James Suriano, Invasive Species Technician
Jan Barry, Retired
Jana Pochop, Musician
Jda. Beck, Mls
Jeff Veazey, Swimming Coach
Jen Duke, Real Estate Agent
Jenni Wiggins, Event Coordinator
Jennifer Kristan, Artist
Jerialice, Musician/ Producer
Jesse Boggis, Researcher
Jodie Babbitt, Mrs.
Joel Rafael, Songwriter
Joette Pelliccia, Educator
John Forsythe, Admirer Of The Big Bend
Jonathan F, Dr
Joseph Montoya, Environmental Scientist
Joshua Green, Entrepeneur
Joslyn Santana, Student
Joy A. Mayne, Csr
Julie Wall, Piano Teacher/musician
Julie Welch, Math Editor
Kara Mosher, Musician
Karen Fratkin, Visual Artist
Karen Mahaffy, Artist/professor
Karen Seal, Attorney/citizen
Kathleen O’keefe, Singer-songwriter
Kathryn Bloss, Artist
Keith Ledbetter, Electrician
Kelly, Private Sector
Ken Whitley, Writer/poet
Kevin Sutavee, Restaurateur
Kristen Wilcox, Teacher
Kristine Heisler, Retired
Larrison Manygoats, Retired Military
Laura Enrione, Social Worker
Lesley Harris, Registered Nurse
Linda D. Lytle, Veteran Of The Us Army, Retired From Swt, And A Texan
Linda Diane Lytle, Former Texan
Linda Lytle, Misplaced Texan
Lisa Koenigsberg, Taxpayer
Lissa Hattersley, Musician/interested Party
Marc And Susan Severson, Retired Educators
Margaret Durham, Academic Advisor
Margaret Yen, Music Exec
Maria Teresa Herr, Attorney
Marilyn Gulledge, Massage Therapist
Martha Lueg, Texas Teacher
Martha Parada, Student
Mary Brown Malouf, Writer, Editor
Mary F. Radicke, Texan
Mary Piehl, Retired Teacher
Mary Potter, Retired Teacher
Maureen Coertb, Social Worker
Mela Macquarrie, Designer
Michele Lane Herget, Musician
Misty Rodriguez, Earth Protector
Nancy Hanus, Chef
Nathan Hamilton, Musician
Neil Williams, Electrical Contractor
Olya Makarova, Student
Pat Brier, Musician
Patti Rich, Research Scientist
Paul Williams, Engineer
Rebecca Barnes, Voter
Rebecca Thilo, Artist
Rene Saucedo, Trainer/ Self-defense/ Kickboxing
Rice Jackson, Photographer
Richard Roberts, Hotel Owner
Robin A Enos, Realtor For Century 21
Russell Pyle, Singer-songwriter Ecopsychologist
Ryann Ford, Photographer
Sandy Barragan, Housewife
Sandy Hemphill, Writer Editor
Sara Altuna, Teacher
Sarah, Volunteer Coordinator
Sharon Duncan, Educator
Sharona Ovrahim, Student
Shelley Duval, Software Sales
Stephanie Rodriguez, Nurse
Stirling Greenlee, Rancher
Susan Gibson, Musician
Taylor Angles, Artist
Terhura Bankston, Student
Terri Hendrix, Musician/wilory Records
Terrielynn Bach, Artist
Tierra Walker, Student
Todd Fichter, Graphic Designer
Todd Spurrier, Art Director
Todd Wright, Artist/florist/bartender
Trista Evans, Massage Therapist
Valerie Fremin, Photographer
Wayne Langdon, Retired
William Stranger, Furniture Maker